When you loop through the characters, your if statement should compare each of the tiles with the passed in tile. First up is a discussion of the basic data types that are built into Python. The syntax for this function is given below. Everything is fine according to the console, everything but this error! "The left-hand side of an assignment must be a variable. Today, i wanna speak about that, returning to the basics and help you mastering it. SQLAlchemy provides abstractions for most common database data types, and a mechanism for specifying your own custom data types. You can fix the compilation. Non-string arguments are first type-converted to a string as described above. Whenever you have a piece of data to work with, you will have to declare a variable. a property or an indexer. CAST and CONVERT Functions. Cast operators are used to cast or convert data from one data type to another, as long as conversion is supported. Except boolean, all the remaining 7 data types can be assigned to one another either implicitly or explicitly; but boolean cannot. Value before you attempt to cast it, as nulls can't be turned into valid objects. TimeOfDay values can be cast to the same type with a different precision with appropriate rounding. Most commonly used data types in Java are int (integer), char (character), float (number having decimal), double (number having decimal), String (collection of characters) and boolean (true or false). This type is defined in the standard header files , , and. Anyone else having datatype mess with Redshift's weird casting of integer/timezones/boolean datatypes into varchar when UNION ALL? These are the typical errors: column … is of type integer but expression is of type character varying is of type boolean but expression is of type timestamp without time zone. string] paragraph 6 : After translation phase 6, a string-literal that does not begin with an encoding-prefix is an ordinary string literal. Wide character type. I have a column called live_in_city that provides a boolean value. suppose your character is between '0' and '9' notice that the "decimal" ASCII code for '0' is 48 and for '9' it is 57. In local machine all castings between data types works fine but in server it doesn´t. Converts Oracle, SQL-Server, and other DDL to Snowflake DDL - sql2sf. A boolean value cannot be assigned to any other data type. Now the integer constant 2 is cast to the value 2. Element is signed numeric value. Looking for help building expressions and formulas in your PowerApps? Ask your questions here! (Please do not use this forum for providing. A type can be specified in three equivalent ways: a char, a short and a symbol. Variables form the basis of programming. Boolean casting. environ, parse and cast it to some of useful python typed variables. where Name, Super and Classfields are respectively the class name, the super class name and the contents of the class (attributes and methods) of the class. For example: During the initial replication job, data in a VARCHAR column is found to have a width greater than 128. Roughly half of the world population lives in India and China, each of which has about 1. There are the following primitive or built-in types in TypeScript, which are described below. However, I have added one more select t1. CAST and CONVERT Functions. Java Variables or variables in any other programming language are containers, which hold some value. ELsmp y PostgreSQL 7. abs all allocate allow alter and any are array array_max_cardinality as asensitivelo asymmetric at atomic authorization avg begin begin_frame begin_partition between bigint binary bit blob boolean both by call called cardinality cascaded case cast ceil ceiling char char. The values true and false are untyped boolean constants that can be assigned to any boolean variable, but once given a type, boolean variables cannot be mixed:. A Singer redshift target, for use with Singer streams generated by Singer taps. For example, the Boolean data type is the set of exactly two values: true and false. Other type names can also be used for type casting. Basic Data Types: Atoms 2. 8n, when Kerberos is enabled but Kerberos configuration files cannot be opened, does not check a certain return value, which allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (NULL pointer dereference and daemon. Variables and types The usefulness of the "Hello World" programs shown in the previous chapter is rather questionable. I'm running npgsql 2. To explicitly convert a value to boolean, use the (bool) or (boolean) casts. When the SSIS Variable type is String, and you use OLEDB connection for the Execute SQL Task, the datatype of the result of the query should be Nvarchar or Nchar. When we pass in a variable, that variable is evaluated to produce its value, which is then converted to the new type. In fact, the explicit typecasting is a unary operation. Since this is a small lookup table, it is distributed to all nodes in the cluster (All) and sorted by its primary key, "iata". Description: CAST allows mixing of numerics and characters in a single expression by converting val to a specified data type. Element is case-sensitive. Retrieves the font family setting. This means that a CHAR(10) variable can contain a string with a maximum length of 10 bytes. Compatibility in among Redshift data types is defined implicitly and if there are data types which are incompatible the user can take the help of explicit conversion to make data types compatible. The values true or false have been added as keywords in the C++ language. I am sure it is bool?. * from (custom_sql) t1, but the issue remains the same. The idea of this package is to unify a lot of packages that make the same stuff: Take a string from os. Netezza data types are almost similar to what the traditional RDBMS supports. First up is a discussion of the basic data types that are built into Python. Working directory is /Users/rick/java > "This is a string" "This is a string". With Amazon Redshift, CHAR and VARCHAR data is defined in terms of bytes instead of characters. containing all string characters, with a variable length. C++11 is a version of the standard for the programming language C++. Visual Basic provides character data types to deal with printable and displayable characters. id NOT IN(SELECT ltl_class_nmfc_aliases_id FROM. When you issue Netezza create table command each column […]. […] Change in 5. However, pointers may be type cast from one type to another type. For example, if I try to assign the information 2, which is of type "int", to a variable of type "bool", the compiler will automatically convert that information to the boolean value "true". Type objects are supplied to Table definitions and can be supplied as type hints to functions for. Your code uses 1. The boolean type is a member of the numeric family of types (specifically a subclass of int), and when used in a numeric, but not boolean context, True has the value one and False the value zero. 42821: Columns of type '' cannot hold values of type ''. In Java, string literals are enclosed within quotation marks: Interactions Welcome to DrJava. However, in most cases the cast is unnecessary, since a value will be automatically converted if an operator, function or control structure requires a boolean argument. Casting between primitive types enables you to convert the value of one type to another primitive type. A variable cannot begin. Drill uses the ANY type internally and you might see references to ANY in the output of the DESCRIBE or other commands. We assign 42 to a variable. vector(), is. * @param the type of both input and output elements * @param upstream a reference stream with element type T * @param skip the number of elements to skip. However, I have added one more select t1. 0 but in production server (external web hosting partner) I have a Linux Red Hat with kernel 2. Because Java is a strongly typed language, so every variable must be declared and initialized or assigned before it is used. In the first post of this series, I will explain how to name variables, how to assign values, and how to deal with PowerShell data types. Initialize a variable (sum) for storing the summation. Ordinal types include integer, character, Boolean, enumerated, and subrange types. The Boolean class wraps a value of the primitive type boolean in an object. All the operators listed exist in C++; the fourth column "Included in C", states whether an operator is also present in C. CONVERT() with a USING clause provides a way to convert data between different character sets: CONVERT(expr USING transcoding_name) In MySQL, transcoding names are the same as the corresponding character set names. Redshift is a columnar database better suited for analytics, and thus a more appropriate platform for a data warehouse. pointer - A pointer is a data type that "points" to an area of memory. This means that a CHAR(10) variable can contain a string with a maximum length of 10 bytes. 9 GA version), I feel the JSON support so far looks rather useful. Ingredient nodes specify the Ingredient that they call via their notebook. The idea of this package is to unify a lot of packages that make the same stuff: Take a string from os. CAST and CONVERT Functions. Target Redshift. Cast function used to explicitly convert an expression in one data type to another data type. The author might even know. Some versions of Excel crash with names lon. Element is signed numeric value. destring— Convert string variables to numeric variables and vice versa 5 Example 2 Our dataset contains the variable date, which was accidentally recorded as a string because of spaces after the year and month. SELECT *FROM ltl_class_nmfc_aliases WHERE ltl_class_nmfc_aliases. These are of type bool and when cast to another integral type become the values 1 and 0, respectively. A Singer redshift target, for use with Singer streams generated by Singer taps. For a table that displays a side-by-side comparison of the Visual Basic data types, see Data Types. Strings that are converted to bit strings are padded with trailing zeros to fit the size of the target bit string. For more information on the JavaCast function, see the CFML Reference. See also Type Juggling. Boolean variables in MATLAB are actually interchangable with doubles, in that boolean operators can be performed with arrays of doubles and vice versa. The following table describes the three possible states for a Boolean value and the literal values that result in that state. Duration, and Edm. The following code snippet can be used to test type casting as a Boolean:. If one operand is an enum and the other is the base type of that enum, the result is the base type. Regardless of the input string, a Boolean column stores and outputs "t" for true and "f" for false. There are a lot of other implementations of the ABAP to JSON Serializer and Deserializer in SDN, but for different reasons, all implementations I have found were not suitable for my needs. The type can be determined at run time. The DECIMAL type in Hive is based on Java's BigDecimal which is used for representing immutable arbitrary precision decimal numbers in Java. Understanding the most important concepts of the PowerShell variable is essential for everything you do in PowerShell. When installed through a classic installation, there is not extra environment variable to be set in order to run Golaem (except golaem_LICENSE when a license is needed). When the data object x is a data frame or list, the function is called recursively for each column or list element. Dear Tom, How does one display a long datatype column variable of a table on the same line after an xml tag? For example, we are using sql*plus to write a file containing xml tags at the beginning of each record via a SELECT statement. ELsmp y PostgreSQL 7. In statically-typed languages like C# , after a variable is declared, it typically cannot be declared again or used to store data that is incompatible with that particular type. The BLOB type is more limited and requires explicit casting. In order for your data analysis to be accurate, it is imperative that you correctly identify the type and formatting of each variable. See below for a list of the different data type mappings applicable when working with an Amazon Redshift database. Syntax TEXT Quick Example CREATE TABLE t (c TEXT); Range up to 1 Gb Trailing Spaces Stored and retrieved if data contains them. If the string variable type is strL, the function returns the content up to 2,045 bytes or to the first binary 0, whichever is less, of each observation in the VARIANT *data. Examples ‘This is a character constant. suppose your character is between '0' and '9' notice that the "decimal" ASCII code for '0' is 48 and for '9' it is 57. This means that a CHAR(10) variable can contain a string with a maximum length of 10 bytes. Java Variables or variables in any other programming language are containers, which hold some value. Warning: For historical reasons, converting a null QVariant results in a null value of the desired type (e. Negative numbers can be assigned to char variables. To convert a signal from one data type to another by attempting to preserve the real-world value of the input signal, select Real World Value (RWV), the default setting. ANSI standard C++ compilers became available in 1998. IsSelected is nullable bool type (bool?) then you cannot assign as it is to bool variable. An ordinal type defines an ordered set of values in which each value except the first has a unique predecessor and each value except the last has a unique successor. To declare a variable, use the type and then a name for failed conversions while performing a cast from one type to built-in numeric types, bool, char, string, or an enum type. all return results of type Boolean. If you use some other type than this one, and you don't want this version of the class compiled into the library, you can define the preprocessor macro FP_DISABLE_DOUBLE_TYPE. 255 character maximum. If cast or conversion causes any digits to be lost from the fractional part, it can take place. However, pointers only hold an address, they cannot hold all the characters in a character array. The typical syntax is as follows: ALTER TABLE promotions ADD expiry_date DATE; Redshift supports the following data types: SMALLINT (INT2) INTEGER (INT, INT4) BIGINT (INT8) DECIMAL (NUMERIC) REAL (FLOAT4) DOUBLE PRECISION (FLOAT8) BOOLEAN (BOOL) CHAR (CHARACTER) VARCHAR (CHARACTER VARYING) DATE TIMESTAMP Here’s an. destring will convert it to numeric and remove the spaces. Here is a list of data types along with associated info. Pa is declared as a pointer to int variables, Pd is declared as a pointer to double type variables, and Pc is declared as pointer to character type variables. In addition, this class provides useful methods like to convert a boolean to a String and. A string is a sequence of characters. Casting between primitive types enables you to convert the value of one type to another primitive type. " Note 2: I felt there had to be some way to cast the true into a 1, and the false into a 0. Go specifications coins the term assignability. If dynamic_cast is used to convert to a reference type and the conversion is not possible, an exception of type bad_cast is thrown instead. dtype class) describes how the bytes in the fixed-size block of memory corresponding to an array item should be interpreted. A Unity ID allows you to buy and/or subscribe to Unity products and services, shop in the Asset Store and participate in the Unity community. NET you can replace currency variables with the new 64-bit Long variable or the 64-bit decimal data type. A Boolean data type can hold one of three possible values: true, false or null. Amazon Redshift introduces multibyte (UTF-8) character support for database object names and updated ODBC/JDBC Posted On: Nov 18, 2016 You can now use multibyte (UTF-8) characters in Amazon Redshift table, column, and other database object names. ParseResult. h extension on headers was dropped. The source variable type for INPUT() must always be character variables; The following examples show how to use these rules to convert from character/numeric or numeric/character: A PUT() converts character variable to another character variable. No header file is required to. C# data types. With static typing, the datatype of a value is determined by its container - the particular column in which the value is stored. Lines 5, 6, and 7 all give us errors. That's all for 8 primitive data types available in java. Although being a basic type, raw values cannot be created directly by the programmer, but are supported natively for data-passing purposes. A character string that you want to cast to a numeric type must contain a character representation of a number. Logical Types Table B-1 shows the PostgreSQL logical data type: boolean. The const_cast operator is more specific than normal type-casts because it can only be used to remove the const-ness of a variable, and trying to change its type in other ways is a. TINYINT[(M)] [UNSIGNED] [ZEROFILL] A very small integer. A native JSON data type; A set of built-in functions to manipulate values of the JSON type; Despite being added rather recently (in MySQL 5. Well, sort of. All variables in Appian are strongly typed. For the CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT, ENUM, and SET data types, you can declare a column with a binary (_bin) collation or the BINARY attribute to cause comparison and sorting to use the underlying character code values rather than a lexical ordering. 0 as the informat which will handle character strings up to 4 characters long. With the exception of boolean, any primitive type can be converted to any other. Certain data types require an explicit conversion to other data types using the CAST or CONVERT function. I would like to know how to check the type of a data, so that I can choose what to do with it. BOOLEAN can also have an “unknown” value, which is represented by NULL. A pseudo-type cannot be used as a column data type, but it can be used to declare a function's argument or result type. 5 or higher. You cannot directly cast a STRING value to BOOLEAN. We want to remove the spaces. To do that and to use the 12factor approach, some connection strings are expressed as url, so this package can parse it and return a urllib. This is the 'boolean' nature of our existence. If one explicitly casts a value to character varying(n) or character(n), then an over-length value will be truncated to n characters. (Of course, OPeNDAP cannot enforce conventions in datasets where they were not followed in the first place. The compiler can only guarantee that an Object will be returned by the iterator. Narrowing conversion requires explicit type-cast to inform the compiler that you are aware of the possible loss of precision. We therefore insert a formula before the Union, on the side that needs adjustment: This will convert the field improperly type as Text String into a Boolean, and confirm its type, and upon restarting the workflow: Voila!. x otherwise you don't use methods. I would recommend using 12. You get this rather unhelpful message: column "fraddl" cannot be cast to type "pg_catalog. CAST can be used in search conditions to translate one data type into another for comparison purposes. Type casting in PHP works much as it does in C: the name of the desired type is written in parentheses before the variable which is to be cast. The BOOLEAN type is optional (has feature ID T031), which is a bit surprising for such a basic type. There is a duality built in our world. The following table lists the data types along with the version in which they were introduced. CAST function. Normally, only similar data types can be compared in search conditions. ParseResult. If one operand is an enum and the other is the base type of that enum, the result is the base type. Consider using BIT data type columns for Boolean values, as opposed to storing "TRUE / FALSE", "yes/no" or other character strings. Informally speaking, the critical changes with respect to C++03 are the drop of a static_cast on the second argument, and more leeway as to when the templated constructor should have the same effect as the (size, value) one: only when InputIterator is an integral type, in C++03; when it is either an integral type or any other type that the. whether a LENGTH or ATTRIB statement is present. printf() has a variable number of arguments, the first of which is a format string. These ways of displaying data values are referred to as variable formats. In local machine all castings between data types works fine but in server it doesn´t. IsSelected datatype. This is the 'boolean' nature of our existence. We will use the CAST function of Redshift SQL, which abbreviates conveniently following this syntax: expression :: type. This type of static_cast is used to implement move semantics in std::move. Groovy will automatically cast a single-character String to char only when assigning to a variable of type char. Python has a boolean data type with the only two possible values denoted by True and False. If you use some other type than this one, and you don't want this version of the class compiled into the library, you can define the preprocessor macro FP_DISABLE_DOUBLE_TYPE. Description: CAST allows mixing of numerics and characters in a single expression by converting val to a specified data type. Casting is important because GLSL does not support equations with mixed data types. For example, CAST ('Denodo' AS VARCHAR(2)) returns “De” because the target type specifies a length lower than the length of the input value. Library Wording. TYPE_NAME DATA_TYPE PRECISION NULLABLE CASE_SENSITIVE MAXIMUM_SCALE NVARCHAR -9 [NVARCHAR] 16000 true true 0 NCHAR -8 [ROWID] 16000 true true 0 BOOLEAN -7 [BIT] 1…. I have a swipe control script that I made. That flexibility allows to cope with cases where the type tinyint might have been used as a boolean in some cases but as a smallint in others. For the CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT, ENUM, and SET data types, you can declare a column with a binary (_bin) collation or the BINARY attribute to cause comparison and sorting to use the underlying character code values rather than a lexical ordering. In this part of the C# tutorial, we will talk about data types. (a) An integer literal of type signed long long is specified with a suffix ll, where the suffix is case-insensitive. We say, boolean is incompatible for conversion. First up is a discussion of the basic data types that are built into Python. Floor, Ceil, Round, and many more) handle decimal types. Cast to a Union Type. If dynamic_cast is used to convert to a reference type and the conversion is not possible, an exception of type bad_cast is thrown instead. C++11 is a version of the standard for the programming language C++. CONVERT() with a USING clause provides a way to convert data between different character sets: CONVERT(expr USING transcoding_name) In MySQL, transcoding names are the same as the corresponding character set names. There are eight basic types in Lua: nil, boolean, number, string, function, userdata, thread, and table. 2 get_frame_register_bytes %s/lockfile shoptionletters. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. For instance, the value 123. The BOOLEAN type is optional (has feature ID T031), which is a bit surprising for such a basic type. Returns true if the current type of the variant was successfully cast; otherwise returns false. The Oracle CAST function is quite powerful, but it can be hard to use. The DECIMAL type in Hive is based on Java's BigDecimal which is used for representing immutable arbitrary precision decimal numbers in Java. NULL represents an unknown value. Cast functions and operators enable conversion of values from one data type to another. c in OpenSSL before 0. 7 comes with built-in JSON support, comprising two major features:. To typecast something, simply put the type of variable you want the actual variable to act as inside parentheses in front of the actual variable. CAST ( expression AS data type ) Parameters. This is because an int cannot be assigned to a String, a boolean cannot be assigned to an int, and a String cannot be assigned to a boolean, respectively. Please notice that with statement parameters, you always need a full-syntax cast – shorthand casts are not supported. TimeOfDay values can be cast to the same type with a different precision with appropriate rounding. The cast on line 3 is slightly annoying. Variables, Data Types, and Arithmetic Expressions. Cast functions and operators enable conversion of values from one data type to another. The definition of a variable will assign storage for the variable and define the type of data that will be held in the location. In this part of the C# tutorial, we will talk about data types. When you issue Netezza create table command each column […]. These views show the properties of the database objects that currently exist in the database. Description: CAST allows mixing of numerics and characters in a single expression by converting val to a specified data type. Non-string arguments are first type-converted to a string as described above. Since this is a small lookup table, it is distributed to all nodes in the cluster (All) and sorted by its primary key, "iata". Release Notes for the old DbVisualizer 9. The Boolean class wraps a value of the primitive type boolean in an object. /* The type of variable. It most commonly occurs with the numeric types, and there's one primitive type that can never be used in a cast. - The RedshiftTap itself handles setting delim characters as needed for the insert by default and handles telling Redshift what delimiter to use so there's no need to do the custom setting of the delimiter to a non-ASCII character like you're doing. It defines when value v is assignable to variable of type T. BOOL, BOOLEAN These types are synonyms for TINYINT(1). This example shows how to cast to and from types of variables that are declared using coder. 0 of the double type, because as a result of converting the first operand has taken the double type. varchar(n): for variable-length character strings, where the value in the parenthesis dictates the maximum accepted size of each entry. In the examples shown in the following table, which illustrate these principles, the first letter of the data type is used as a variable identifier (b is a Boolean, d is a date, I is an integer, r is a real, and s is a string). B PUT() converts numeric variable to a character variable with numeric value. The thumb rule is, on both sides, the same data type should exist. sprintf format type tag for double??. expression The expression to be converted. Ruby Boolean values. The following code snippet can be used to test type casting as a Boolean:. 0 beta if it solves th. Modifying a const object through a non-const access path and referring to a volatile object through a non-volatile glvalue. This parser uses float as its numerical type. Loop N (=6) number of times to get the value of each integer from the list. +, -, *, /) and relevant UDFs (e. environ, parse and cast it to some of useful python typed variables. Regardless of the input string, a Boolean column stores and outputs “t” for true and “f” for false. ALTER TABLE ma_tiger ALTER COLUMN fraddl TYPE integer. numeric(), is. In PowerShell, arrays are a wonderfull and very powerfull tools which will help you in your daily labor. Here's an example of creating a users table in Redshift: CREATE TABLE users ( id INTEGER primary key, -- Auto incrementing IDs name character varying, -- String column without specifying a length created_at timestamp without time zone -- Always store time in UTC ); This is also a chance to specify not null constraints and default values in Redshift: create table users ( id BIGINT primary key. An atom is an irreducible value of a specific data type. PostGIS extended formats are currently superset of OGC one (every valid WKB/WKT is a valid EWKB/EWKT) but this might vary in the future, specifically if OGC comes out with a new format conflicting with our extensions. Althought this is a naughty example, it's a good idea to use the const_cast operator. SQLAlchemy provides abstractions for most common database data types, and a mechanism for specifying your own custom data types. Basic Data Types: Atoms 2. Visual Basic provides character data types to deal with printable and displayable characters. CrateDB has different types that can be specified if a table is created using the the CREATE TABLE statement. The int data type determines that the speed variable can only contain integers. It is an operator. +, -, *, /) and relevant UDFs (e. When we pass in a variable, that variable is evaluated to produce its value, which is then converted to the new type. Casts the variant to the requested type, t. Checking types in Javascript is a big mess. Finally, we use the Boolean variable to only display a MsgBox if the variable holds the value True. Some databases (like MySQL) don’t have boolean data type and instead convert boolean values into integers (1=TRUE, 0 = FALSE). To typecast something, simply put the type of variable you want the actual variable to act as inside parentheses in front of the actual variable. The int data type determines that the speed variable can only contain integers. You can declare multiple variables of the same type by separating them with commas. 3’ Note that a character constant representing a number cannot be stored into a numerical variable; it must be cast appropriately. With Amazon Redshift, CHAR and VARCHAR data is defined in terms of bytes instead of characters. * from (custom_sql) t1, but the issue remains the same. In other words, Amazon Redshift Spectrum enables you to use the same ANSI SQL syntax of Amazon Redshift on the data that is stored in an Amazon S3 data lake. I want to convert it to a string though. Other functions will return a value of the same type as the arguments with one exception. Please notice that with statement parameters, you always need a full-syntax cast - shorthand casts are not supported. When the SSIS Variable type is String, and you use OLEDB connection for the Execute SQL Task, the datatype of the result of the query should be Nvarchar or Nchar. Syntax TEXT Quick Example CREATE TABLE t (c TEXT); Range up to 1 Gb Trailing Spaces Stored and retrieved if data contains them. The format JavaCast(type[], variable) casts a ColdFusion Array variable to a single dimensional Array of the specified type. How to cast VARCHAR to BYTEA and vice-versa? cannot cast type text to bytea I get similar errors when trying to go the other direction. These are the cast conversions that are supported. MS SQL has different data types, depending on the version. Syntax (type)variable Parameters: type: any variable type (e. In local machine all castings between data types works fine but in server it doesn´t. However, because of Swift’s type inference, you don’t have to write the type of the set’s elements if you’re initializing it with an array literal that contains values of just one type. data_type is an optional parameter that specifies the data type of the return result. The PowerShell variable has many features that help you create reliable scripts. Cast to and from Types of Variables Declared Using coder. When the data object x is a data frame or list, the function is called recursively for each column or list element. Visual Basic provides character data types to deal with printable and displayable characters. Type casting in PHP works much as it does in C: the name of the desired type is written in parentheses before the variable which is to be cast. Here’s what you’ll learn in this tutorial: In Python 3, there is effectively no limit to how. This is also where the user would specify whether to reprocess the Ingredient or to use its formerly-processed output. Data-types can be used as functions to convert python numbers to array scalars (see the array scalar section for an explanation), python sequences of numbers to arrays of that type, or as arguments to the dtype keyword that many numpy functions or methods accept. 5 or higher. Unlike in C booleans are not the same as ints, and ints and booleans cannot be cast back and forth.